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13.00.08

2012

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21 2012 13 212.136.04 . .. : 109240, . , . , . 1618.

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. .. http://www.mggu-ch.ru http://vak.ed.gov.ru .

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Aaoc cceoa. poopae peoa opaoa ce eco oe, cooece po XXI ea, ao ceac . oepa poeccoao-ecoo opaoa x ceaco ecoo po ec, acoee pe, pope aceo oo opaoaeo pocpace. ccee paooxpae peec poopecoe oaooe coepecoae aeca ooo ceaco ecoo po acee ooo eeao-pacex ceaco-eo, oope axoc oae c aea.



xoo-pacea pa paa pae eaoa po eo e poeccoao eeoc. o c oepa poeccoax poopax eoce ccee ooo ceo ecx o oe oca coepecoaa poecce epa eo-cxooo-eaoecoo a. eocao poe poeccoao-oco p ceo, xoo-paceoo aaa copeeo oece eae aa poe ocoeo ocpo.

oooa ceaco ecx epceax ceo c o poopax eoce ecoepea e ooo aoo oocoa pae ocoo oe. acee oppoa poopax cceo-eocx apae x ceaco ecoo po epaooe pae caoee coax eo-eaoecx aec, , ooo a ocoe eo-ocaeo opaaoo pao, ooe oo eopeecx opeo-coooecx cceoa a ce eao ce eco o, eop p oc, pax ex.

a caoee poeccoao p aeae p ex C.. Apxaecoo, A.A. epoo, .. eo, .. a, E.. eeea, .. cocoo, .. , .A. Cacea, C.. Caceo, E.. Coa, px, pecax opa cceo-eoc a pee copeex aaex poe acee oe aeca ooo ceaca. poecc coepecoa ooo poopecoo e ec pao .C. epcoo, B.B. aoa, .C. oa, .. , A.. eoea, .. eea.

Ocoooaae eeo eco eao A.A. pocoo, ..Opoa, .. accoo, C.. ooa, .. Topooo, B.A. ooa ocaoo oo xapaep copeee eo-eaoece o a ooe aoe oocoae pae ocoo oe. a opaoaea eoc pa ceo-eo oa poc pe , oca, ooex, oe, -ceeco eeoc.

ee oaox exao oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oxoo oc cea ceo ecoo epcea ceao e poooc, eaoecx coax ce o ooe opoc cac, p o e paccapac poopae cceo-eoce oco poecce ooo ceaco-eo.

K aaoc cceoa oo eoope poope: e pae acecx oco poecc coepecoa eo-eeaoo aoec pae aeo eocaoo ao papaoaoc poopax oxoo acee poopaoaeo pao ecx o; ae peoa pocoopao eeoc ceaco-eo caoe x poeccoao p popeo oocoaoc cce poopax eoce poecce oe eco e; ace cceo-eocx oooce ooo x pae cao papaoaoc e eoo pa poopax eoce ceo-eo.

ee poope oa poe cceoa, aa poopa cceo-eoc oco x pae ce eco o, pecae aoee e oao op, eo p coepecoa poopax eoce ceo, eo-eaoec co aoee epcex e. c c poe eoxooc cppoo ooe cceo-eocx oco acee oe aeca poeccoao-eco p ceaco ecoo po.

Aaoc aoc eo poe, ee eocaoa papaoaoc oo pa e aeo cceoa: - .

Kee o cceoa:

- poopae cceo-eoce oco o oco eoe cocae ac poeccoao-opaoaeo eeoc eo paa, cococe oco poc ceaco-eo, pa coepecoa poopecx, pooecx, eeao-pacex, pocoax, poeccoao-opepoax aec oc, aeax eco opaoa oo opaoo pocpace;

- eo-poeccoao-oca pa o xoo-pace ace oc cea-ea, apa oco opepoa p poeccoa cep; o co poeccoa poopecx coc ceaca-paa; o pocoopaoe eeao-paceoe peopaoae poeccoao-ocoo oa oeeoc oea;

- poeccoao-eca oooa x pae - o cce oae pocoopa ocoa eco eao a aoo oe opaoaeo-poeccoao eeoc x pae, e cceo-eocoo e aeca eco oo o, ee pax aoea, opaa cxooo-eaoecoo aa pox oeax paoa opaa poeccoao-oco p ceaca ecoo pee.

Oe cceoa eo-ocae poecc o aox poopax eoce ce eco oe.

pee cceoa epee poopax cceo-eocx oco poecc poeccoao-eco ooo ceo-eo.

e cceoa a ocoe cceo-eocoo oxoa ao oocoa oeaoe caoee poopax oco ceo ecoo epcea poecce x poeccoao-opaoaeo eeoc.

oea cceoa: oppoae poopax cceo-eocx oco ceo ecoo epcea eo-ocaeo poecce e pocxo aoee eo, ec:

- - - ;

- coepae ecoo opaoa e ocpoeo a epa eo-eaoecx oco poopax eoce, cococx coa co poopecoo ocoo poca eo ceaca, eo caoopeee caopeaa pao oac e;

- aceca apaeoc eo-eaoeco exoo oco oe oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oco ceo-eo;

- oe cceo-eocoo pocoopaoo oxoa poecce poeccoao- ooo ceo ce eco o cae ocoo coa eoecoo oecee x pae e epe eeao-aoo, xoo-paceoo, eo-eaoecoo poopecoo oeaa cea-ea;

- peaoaa oe oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oco eo paa poeccoao-opaoaeo poecce ecoo a, ocoaa a apaax ao-ecoo aoec c e e aeca eco oo aea;

- p, eo cpeca peaa cococ pa aceco eco eao (oaaea , oaoa , peaa , ooa (oea) , oaa ), c e coxpae aea.

aa cceoa:

  1. - - .
  2. oe cceo-eocoo pocoopaoo oxoa poecce poeccoao- ooo ceo ce eco o oco coa eoecoo oecee x pae e epe eeao-aoo, xoo-paceoo, eo-eaoecoo poopecoo oeaa cea-ea; oco oe oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oco ceo-eo aceca apaeoc eo-eaoeco exoo.
  3. peaoa oe oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oco eo paa poeccoao-opaoaeo poecce ecoo a, ocoa a apaax ao-ecoo aoec c e e aeca eco oo aea.
  4. Coppoa ocoe p, eo cpeca eo peaa oe oppoa poopax eoce x pae pae oe oca ceo-eo, cococ pa aceco eco eao (oaaea , oaoa , peaa , ooa (oea) , oaa ), c e coxpae aea.
  5. cepeao peca eoc epe oe oppoa poopax eoce ceo cox poeccoao-opaoaeoo poecca ce eco o.

Meoooeco eopeeco ocoo cceoa cceo-eoc coao-pooec oxo poecc cxooo-eaoecx co peaa oe coepecoa poopax eoce x pae.

Peee ocaex aa poepa oe oeceaoc ce eoa: eopeec aa (cpaeo-coocae); aocec eo (ecpoae, aepoae ..); ocepao eo (poe, oceoe eoe aee); pacepec eo (ee ooee poeccoao peao eeoc ceo ecoo a); eo caceco opao oex ax.





cceoae poooc p aa.

ep a (2007-2008) aa ococo, cxooo-eaoeco, eo-coooeco ceao oeeceo apeo epap, a ae ee epeooo eo-eaoecoo oa (ccepaoe cceoa o ea, poee aoo cceoa).

opo a (2008-2010) oooa poeee ocapeo oppeo cepea, oocoae oax paoax co o oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oco poecce poeccoao ooo ceo ecx o; pooc oc aoocoeoc eop eo-opaoaex aa opoce eeao-paceoo poca oc ecoo epcoaa.

pe a (2010-2012) opaoa oopee oex aepao eppea oo cceoa, x eopeecoe paecoe pecaee. Pea cceoa po cacec opao, oee o.

peco ao cceoa c Pac ocapce ec epce e aaea .. aoa. cceoa oxae ce pax pco aeo (coaooecoo, eeoo eo-poaecoo) ce 1900 eoe. cceoaeca paoa pooac a aepe eao, cxoo TCO O; a aepe ocpaoo a, a ae acoo a pccoo a Pacoo ocapceoo ecoo epcea e aaea .. aoa.

, , aa oa. - - -. :

  • opeee coepa o poopae cceo-eoce oco a eoe cocae ac poeccoao-opaoaeo eeoc eo paa, cococ oco poc ceaco-eo, pa coepecoa poopecx, pooecx, eeao-pacex, pocoax, poeccoao-opepoax aec oc aeax eco opaoa oo opaoo pocpace;
  • oe cceo-eocoo pocoopaoo oxoa poecce poeccoao- ooo ceo ce eco o oco coa eoecoo oecee x pae e epe eeao-aoo, xoo-paceoo, eo-eaoecoo poopecoo oeaa cea-ea; oco oe oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oco ceo-eo aceca apaeoc eo-eaoeco exoo;
  • peaoa oe oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oco eo paa poeccoao-opaoaeo poecce ecoo a, ocoa a apaax ao-ecoo aoec c e e aeca eco oo aea;
  • oppoa ocoe p, eo cpeca eo peaa oe oppoa poopax eoce x pae pae oe oca ceo-eo, cococ pa aceco eco eao (oaaea , oaoa , peaa , ooa (oea) , oaa ), c e coxpae aea.

eopeeca aoc cceoa :

  • oocoae coc oppoa poopax cceo-eocx oco eo-eaoeco p paeo ooe ee pecae ;
  • ocoe p pocoopax exoo oc oe ee eopeece ooe oe eeoaa coepa poeccoao-pooeco ooo eo paa poecce ooo x pae acee ;
  • ee ee p, op, eo poeccoao ooo x eo, apaee a pae ceo eeaoo, poo, xooo opecoo oeaa oo op oe ace , poecce ooo ceo-eo.
  • , oe poopax cceo-eocx oco poeccoao-eco ooo ceo-eo - - .

paeca aoc cceoa aaec o, o poopae cceo-eoce oco, aeae coepa ceo ecoo opaoa, oo oece oee co pooec poe poeccoao ooo x pae, o e cococoa e aeca pao paa o eco oo o.

paoe peoea epaoa ccea oppoa poopax eoce ceo poecce x poeccoao eeoc. aepa poeeoo cceoa o cooa p papaoe popa ex pco cx ecx ex aeex.

a a occ .



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