Палеолит арало-каспийского региона
Диссертацияны рылымы. Зерттеу жмысы екі блімнен: мтіндік блім – кіріспе, ш блімнен, орытынды, олданылан дебиеттер тізімінен трады, жне осымшалар блімі - суреттер, схемалар, кестелер, карталардан трады.
Candidate’s Dissertation in Historical Sciences
Speciality 07.00.06 – Archaeology
The Paleolithic of Aral and Caspian region
Aims and objectives of the research. As the main objective of the work is considered study of Paleolithic stage of the Stone age in Kazakhstan’s part of Aral and Caspian region on the basis of analyses and systematization of stone tools collection, found during field works, and integration of published and historical materials. Work objective is reached by means of setting and solving of number of consecutive tasks of research: to determine geological and geomorphological, and climate peculiarities of Aral and Caspian region, to follow up the history of geological development and paleogeographical changes during the Eo-pleistocene and Pleistocene; to analyze location topography of the Paleolithic age depending on geomorphological peculiarities of the region; to analyze technical and typological staff of available industrial complexes; to provide correlation of industrial Paleolithic complexes of Aral and Caspian region with complexes of cross-border regions; to provide cultural and chronologic interpretation of the region Paleolithic.
Actuality. Early age of the human history – the Paleolithic age – in Central Europe is not studied enough. Chronological frames of the period in general and of its single stages are not determined. It’s poorly researched the cultural and genetic associations of separate industries.
The Aral and Caspian region which takes the territory from Volga on the west to Turgai downfold on the east, from piedmont steppes of the South Ural to sandy deserts of Turkmenistan is not an exception.
Study of the Stone Age from modern perspectives of archaeology, anthropology, geology, paleogeography will make it possible to understand many anthropogenesis processes, which took place during that epoch and determined further development of cultures and ethnoses in Aral and Caspian region.
Scientific novelty of Research is in special study of the Paleolithic of Aral and Caspian region. Thus: list of memorials of the Stone age of the region, analyses of state of knowledge of the West Kazakhstan Paleolithic are set on the basis of published and historical sources; the data of Geology, Paleogeography and other natural science is analyzed to reconstruct ecological conditions in different epochs of the Stone Age and their influence on life activity and evolution of the early man; materials of encampments and locations of Yeshkitau, Shalkhar 4, Aiteke-bi 1-12, and also Ushkattysai, Terisbutak, Miyalykol 1-2, Kamystkol, Karakol 1-8, Koksu 1-4 memorials discovered by author are entered into scientific turn. Consistency with natural laws and particularity of the Paleolithic memorials topography has been studied; their geographic demarcation has been provided; paleolithologic memorials and cultures maps of Aral and Caspian region has been created; the main feature of the ancient Paleolithic of the region – its “Levallois and Acheulean” character - has been found out; analyses of industrial complexes allows to raise a question on autochtony of the late Paleolithic with some influence of other cultures.
Points considered for the defense of the work:
- the Paleolithic of the region is performed by four regions of complex assembly of Paleolithic memorials: Mаnkystau peninsula, Mugalzhary mountains, North and East Sub-Aral area, North Caspian Sea region;
- populating of the region by early man (precursor of Homo erectus) has been happening since the end of the Pliocene and regression of Apsheron sea, but this fact is fixed only on the memorials with surficial cultural horizon and can’t be proved absolutely;
- representatives of Homo erectus, the bearers of Acheulean, began to get to Aral and Caspian region during the period of Baku regressions (nearly 800 thousand years ago), that is proved by early Paleolithic Mynkystau and Mugalzhar complexes;
- Paleolithic memorials of Sub-Aral area which are very similar to materials of Uzbekistan, Kyzylkumi are typical for Acheuleans of the whole Aral and Caspian region;
- Levallois and prismatical breakages are dominated in technology of primary breakage; queen cells of radial and chisley techniques of breakage are singular. Serrate and mucronated forms, different scrapers, levallois chips, chipper units dominate in tools set.
- North Caspian sea region and Sub-Aral area are part of “Levallois and Acheulean” (according to terminology of A.G. Medoev (1980)) industries and are connecting link between Paleolithic locations of Central Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Niznnee Povolzhie, Caucasus.
Results of the research. Research of the Paleolithic of Aral and Caspian region has began not long ago and is on initial level now. Short-time work conducted by A.G. Medoev in Mankystau at the end of 60th of the XX century requires more detailed review.
Settlement of Aral and Caspian region was not a homogeneous process as far as it depended on occasional demographic explosions which resulted in migrations from the source of primary ecumene to its outskirts. Transgressive and relictive processes of Caspian Sea strongly effected on region settlement and expansion through the territory of Ural, Central Kazakhstan. Only during reliction period ancient people could pass between two seas; during transgression period stream water enclosed the way of ancient pathfinders. Favorable phases for region settlement aligned with Tyurkanskaya reliction at the period of first migration flows of Homo representatives from Africa towards Eurasia. Second migration flow aligned with explosion of Acheulean representatives from the territory of Caucasus and Middle East; this path is already fixed in Paleolithic materials of Mankystau, Mugalzhar, and Sub-Aral region and exists in memorials of Volga region, South Ural and Central Kazakhstan.
Work composition. Dissertation consists of two parts: text part which consists of introduction, three chapters, summary, bibliography, and separate book with appendixes including tables, maps and albums of drawings and schemes in form of illustration for the text part.